Today, one of the most critical health issues is the wide outbreak of novel coronavirus infection, which is so far affected 115 countries and territories all around the world. Presenting the possible risks and appropriate health preventive measures, as well as finding some bio-pharma strategies may open a bright horizon to alleviate the number of patients and the rate of disease transmission until discovering the vaccines and definitive treatments.
In December 2019, novel coronavirus was initially recognized in Wuhan State, Hubei Province, China. This virus and its disease were called “SARS-CoV-2” and “coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19”, respectively. The COVID-19 was quickly spread in other Far East Asian countries and then to the Middle East and Europe.1 Similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS; 2002-2003) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS; 2012-ongoing), SARS-CoV-2 is the beta-coronavirus that originated from bats, causing fever, dry cough, and severe acute respiratory (SAR, e.g., breath shortness).2 Other common symptoms of this viral disease are fatigue, sputum production, myalgia or arthralgia, sore throat, headache, chills, nausea or vomiting, nasal congestion, diarrhea, and hemoptysis, and conjunctival congestion.2,3 In general, undesirable clinical outcomes are correlated to older adults and travelers with underlying health issues. Although the clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 in people can be resulted according to their signs, exposures, and chest imaging, nucleic acid testing of respiratory tract samples (eg, throat swabs) can be considered as a “gold standard” to confirm the viral infection.4,5 (Read more...)