The Trend of Esophageal Cancer Incidence in Iran

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Larestan School of Medical Sciences, Larestan, Iran

3 Health Management Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Introduction: Cancer is one of the main causes for mortality and morbidity in the world. Identifying epidemiology and the trend of esophageal cancer may be highly effective in related planning. The present study has been carried out with the aim of exploring the morbidity and trend of esophageal cancer in Iran.
Methods: The present study is a type of repeated analysis of the existing data. The population of this study consisted of the cancer registry data during the years (2003-2009) in Iran. The direct incidence rate was standard according to the World Health Organization (WHO) population. The incidence trend of this disease in this country was drawn by the means of the STATA software and the significance of the morbidity trend diagram was also derived via WINPEPI software.
Results: The results indicated the increasing trend of esophageal cancer up to 2008 while this trend has been dropping during the years 2008-9. The 31914 cases of esophageal cancer which have been recorded throughout the country out of which this rate has been increased from 2759 cases in 2003 to 6210 cases in 2009 so this rate signifies 2 times in morbidity and the recording of cases. During this 7-year career, the maximum incidence rate was related to the Ardabil province with 19.03 per 100’000 cases in 2009 while the minimum incidence rate was related to Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari and also Booshehr provinces with 0.48 and 0.42% per 1000 cases in 2003, respectively.
Conclusion: The incidence rate of esophageal cancer in Iran is increasing, particularly in the northern and northwestern regions of the country. It is recommended to employ screening programs and premature diagnosis in the regions and among high risk populations.

Keywords


1.   Bhurgri Y, Bhurgri A, Hasan SH. Comparability and Quality Control in Cancer Registration; Karachi (data monitoring 1995-2001). J Pak Med Assoc. 2002;52(7):301-7.

2.   Gallo A, Cha C. Updates on esophageal and gastric cancers. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12(20):3237-42.

3.   Valsecchi MG, Steliarova-Foucher E. Cancer registration in developing countries: luxury or necessity?. Lancet Oncol. 2008;9(2):159-67.

4.   Siesling S, Louwman WJ, Kwast A, van den Hurk C, O'Callaghan M, Rosso S, et al. Uses of cancer registries for public health and clinical research in Europe: Results of the European Network of Cancer Registries survey among 161 population-based cancer registries during 2010-2012. Eur J Cancer. 2015;51(9):1039-49.

5.   Yahyapour Y, Shamsi-Shahrabadi M, Mahmoudi M, Motevallian A, Siadati S, Shefaii S, et al. High-risk and low-risk human papillomavirus in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at Mazandaran, Northern Iran. Pathol Oncol Res. 2013;19(3):385-91.

6.   Islami F, Pourshams A, Nasrollahzadeh D, Kamangar F, Fahimi S, Shakeri R, et al. Tea drinking habits and oesophageal cancer in a high risk area in northern Iran: population based case-control study. BMJ. 2009;338:b929.

7.   Islami F, Malekshah AF, Kimiagar M, Pourshams A, Wakefield J, Goglani G, et al. Patterns of food and nutrient consumption in northern Iran, a high-risk area for esophageal cancer. Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(4):475-83.

8.   Abedi-Ardekani B, Kamangar F, Hewitt SM, Hainaut P, Sotoudeh M, Abnet CC, et al. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in oesophageal tissue and risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in north-eastern Iran. Gut. 2010;59(9):1178-83.

9.   Malekshah AF, Kimiagar M, Pourshams A, Yazdani J, Kaiedi Majd S, Goglani G, et al. Vitamin deficiency in Golestan Province, northern Iran: a high-risk area for esophageal cancer. Arch Iran Med. 2010;13(5):391-4.

10. Taghavi N, Biramijamal F, Sotoudeh M, Moaven O, Khademi H, Abbaszadegan MR, et al. Association of p53/p21 expression with cigarette smoking and prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16(39):4958-67.

11. Hajizadeh B, Jessri M, Moasheri SM, Rad AH, Rashidkhani B. Fruits and vegetables consumption and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study. Nutr Cancer. 2011;63(5):707-13.

12. Roshandel G, Majdzadeh R, Keshtkar A, Aramesh K, Sedaghat SM, Semnani S. Healthcare utilization in patients with esophageal cancer in a high risk area in northeast of Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12(9):2437-42.

13. Khodadost M, Yavari P, Babaei M, Mosavi-Jarrahi A, Sarvi F, Mansori K, et al. Estimating the completeness of gastric cancer registration in Ardabil/Iran by a capture-recapture method using population-based cancer registry data. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015;16(5):1981-6.

14. Etemadi A, Abnet CC, Golozar A, Malekzadeh R, Dawsey SM. Modeling the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and squamous dysplasia in a high risk area in Iran. Arch Iran Med. 2012;15(1):18-21.

15. Keshavarzi B, Moore F, Najmeddin A, Rahmani F. The role of selenium and selected trace elements in the etiology of esophageal cancer in high risk Golestan province of Iran. Sci Total Environ. 2012;433:89-97.

16. Ghasemi-Kebria F, Joshaghani H, Taheri NS, Semnani S, Aarabi M, Salamat F, et al. Aflatoxin contamination of wheat flour and the risk of esophageal cancer in a high risk area in Iran. Cancer Epidemiol. 2013;37(3):290-3.

17. Ghasemi-Kebria F, Roshandel G, Semnani S, Shakeri R, Khoshnia M, Naeimi-Tabiei M, et al. Marked increase in the incidence rate of esophageal adenocarcinoma in a high-risk area for esophageal cancer. Arch Iran Med. 2013;16(6):320-3.

18. Roshandel G, Khoshnia M, Sotoudeh M, Merat S, Etemadi A, Nickmanesh A, et al. Endoscopic screening for precancerous lesions of the esophagus in a high risk area in Northern Iran. Arch Iran Med. 2014;17(4):246-52.

19. Razavi SM, Khodadost M, Sohrabi M, Keshavarzi A, Zamani F, Rakhshani N, et al. Accuracy of endoscopic ultrasonography for determination of tumor invasion depth in gastric cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015;16(8):3141-5.

20. Trivers KF, Sabatino SA, Stewart SL. Trends in esophageal cancer incidence by histology, United States, 1998-2003. Int J Cancer. 2008;123(6):1422-8.

21. Eslamian G, Jessri M, Hajizadeh B, Ibiebele TI, Rashidkhani B. Higher glycemic index and glycemic load diet is associated with increased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study. Nutr Res. 2013;33(9):719-25.

22. Haghdoost AA, Hosseini H, Chamani G, Zarei MR, Rad M, Hashemipoor M, et al. Rising incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus in Kerman, Iran. Arch Iran Med. 2008;11(4):364-70.

23. Liu S, Dai JY, Yao L, Li X, Reid B, Self S, et al. Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Its Rare Association with Barrett's Esophagus in Henan, China. PLoS One. 2014;9(10):e110348.

24. Ke L. Mortality and incidence trends from esophagus cancer in selected geographic areas of China circa 1970-90. Int J Cancer. 2002;102(3):271-4.

25. Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin. 2005;55(2):74-108.

26. Jansson C, Johansson AL, Nyrén O, Lagergren J. Socioeconomic factors and risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma: a nationwide Swedish case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14(7):1754-61.

27. Hakami R, Mohtadinia J, Etemadi A, Kamangar F, Nemati M, Pourshams A, et al. Dietary intake of benzo(a)pyrene and risk of esophageal cancer in north of Iran. Nutr Cancer. 2008;60(2):216-21.

28. Islami F, Kamangar F, Nasrollahzadeh D, Aghcheli K, Sotoudeh M, Abedi-Ardekani B, et al. Socio-economic status and oesophageal cancer: results from a population-based case-control study in a high-risk area. Int J Epidemiol. 2009;38(4):978-88.