Descriptive Analysis of the COVID-19 Pandemic During the First and Second Waves in a North-Central State in Nigeria

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Kwara State, Nigeria

2 Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

3 Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

4 Department of Community Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin Kwara State, Nigeria

5 African Field Epidemiology Network, Abuja, Nigeria

6 Primary Health Care Development Agency, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria



Introduction: COVID-19 is a novel infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). This study was a descriptive analysis of COVID-19 during the first and second waves in Kwara State, North-Central Nigeria.
Methods: This study investigated COVID-19 cases and deaths in Kwara State between 2nd April 2020 when Kwara State recorded her index case till the 15th of September 2020 (first wave), and between 16th September 2020 till 15th March 2021 (second wave). Case definitions of COVID-19 as obtained from the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) was used. Data were extracted from the case notes of patients and the Surveillance Outbreak Response Management System, and on-site activities engaged in by the field investigation team were duly captured.
Results: Overall, 3015 confirmed cases of COVID-19 have been identified in Kwara State as of 15th March 2021. The median age was 38 years and ranged between 24 days to 97 years. Also, 1056 (35%) were aged 25 – 39 years, 1695 (56.2%) were males. The case fatality rate was less than 2%. A total of 1064 (35.3%) symptomatic COVID-19 cases had been identified as of the reference date, among whom 696 (65.4%) were mild, 308 (28.9%) were moderate, and 60 (5.6%) were severe/critical cases.
Conclusion: COVID-19 remains a public health problem. A scale-up of COVID-19 surveillance activities should be conducted by the Ministry of Health through active case search and regular refresher training for volunteers. In addition, active community engagement should be prioritized by stakeholders in the national COVID-19 outbreak response.