Vaccination Across Borders: A Historical Overview of Travel-Related Immunization

Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Applied Virology Research Center, Baqiyatallah university of medical sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3 SupremMoshirsadri3e National Defense University, Tehran, Iran.

4 Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Bushehr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bushehr, Iran



In travel medicine, vaccinations play a crucial role in both protecting passengers and preventing the spread of diseases that can be prevented by vaccination in both the travelers' home countries and the places they go to. The first smallpox vaccine, created by Edward Jenner, was initially made available in 1796, marking the beginning of travel-related vaccination. Typhoid, Rabies, and cholera vaccines were created after this discovery, albeit it took over a century to make such a substantial advancement.Travelers now have access to vaccinations for hepatitis A, yellow fever, poliomyelitis, tetravalent meningococcal disease, and poliomyelitis as the 20th century came to a close. To make it easier for tourists to prove their immunizations, the International Certificate of Inoculation and Vaccination was developed in 1933. Nowadays, in addition to following the rules outlined in the 2005 International Health Regulations and the unique requirements of other countries, passengers receive vaccinations based on individual risk assessments. The COVID-19 pandemic's appearance was of particular significance because it ignited a never-before-seen rush to create vaccinations. The first COVID-19 vaccinations received emergency use authorisation to stop the spread of the virus within a year of the pandemic's announcement. The verification of COVID-19 vaccination status has been widespread, especially in foreign travel, since the spring of 2021, while confronting a number of practical and ethical problems. In this article, we provide a summary of the historical development of travel-related vaccinations with a focus on those for which vaccination documentation has been or is still required.