Skin Infections and Travelers

Document Type : Review Article


Molecular Biology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Knowing the type of infections in different geographical regions may help to prevent the distribution of diseases. Vaccines, repellents, mosquito nets and clothes are recommended for preventing the increase of infectious diseases. There are different types of climate and geographical items around the world which determine the kind of skin infections. Travelers' skin diseases are recognized as serious global problems. This problem will be solved through an identification of all the types of microbial agents and vectors which may lead to these infections. Informing travelers and advising are the best ways to prevent the spread of infectious diseases.


1.   Dryden MS. Skin and soft tissue infection: microbiology and epidemiology. Int J Antimicrobial Agents. 2009;34:S2-S7.
2.   Herbinger KH, Siess C, Nothdurft H, Von Sonnenburg F, Löscher T. Skin disorders among travellers returning from tropical and non‐tropical countries consulting a travel medicine clinic. Trop Med Int Health. 2011;16(11):1457-64.
3.   Kovarik C. Cutaneous infectious diseases in the returning international traveler. Cutis. 2011;87(3):112-3.
4.   Morris-Jones R, Morris-Jones S. Travel-associated skin disease. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2012;26(3):675-89.
5.   VanRooyen MJ, Venugopal R. World Travelers: Introduction.
6.   Burns Bo D, Williams RA. Insect bites 2015 [cited 2015]. Available from:
7.   Hochedez P, Caumes E. Common skin infections in travelers. J Travel Med. 2008;15(4):252-62.
8.   Freedman DO, Weld LH, Kozarsky PE, Fisk T, Robins R, von Sonnenburg F, et al. Spectrum of disease and relation to place of exposure among ill returned travelers. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(2):119-30.
9.   Keystone JS. Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in Returned Travelers. CDC Health Information for International Travel 2012: The Yellow Book: The Yellow Book. 2011:463.
10. Stevens DL, Bisno AL, Chambers HF, Everett ED, Dellinger P, Goldstein EJ, et al. Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of skin and soft-tissue infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41(10):1373-406.
11. Traveler information. Skin disease in travelers 2012 [cited 2015]. Available from:
12. Hochedez P, Caumes E. Hookworm‐Related Cutaneous Larva Migrans. J Travel Med. 2007;14(5):326-33.
13. Bouchaud O, Houzé S, Schiemann R, Durand R, Ralaimazava P, Ruggeri C, et al. Cutaneous larva migrans in travelers: a prospective study, with assessment of therapy with ivermectin. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;31(2):493-8.
14. Green AD, Mason C, Spragg PM. Outbreak of cutaneous larva migrans among British military personnel in Belize. J Travel Med. 2001;8(5):267-9.
15. Tremblay A, MacLean J, Gyorkos T, Macpherson D. Outbreak of cutaneous larva migrans in a group of travellers. Trop Med Int Health. 2000;5(5):330-4.
16. Blackwell V, Vega‐Lopez F. Cutaneous larva migrans: clinical features and management of 44 cases presenting in the returning traveller. Br J Dermatol. 2001;145(3):434-7.
17. Behzadi P, Behzadi E. Environmental Microbiology. Tehran, Iran: Niktab Press; 2007. Persian
18. Herwaldt BL, Magill AJ. Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous 2015 [updated 2015; cited 2015]. Available from:
19. Magill AJ. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the returning traveler. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2005;19(1):241-66.
20. Blum J, Desjeux P, Schwartz E, Beck B, Hatz C. Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis among travellers. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004;53(2):158-66.
21. Francesconi F, Lupi O. Myiasis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2012;25(1):79-105.
22. Diaz JH. The epidemiology, diagnosis, management, and prevention of ectoparasitic diseases in travelers. J Travel Med. 2006;13(2):100-11.
23. Tamir J, Haik J, Schwartz E. Myiasis with Lund's fly (Cordylobia rodhaini) in travelers. J Travel Med. 2003;10(5):293-5.
24. Maier H, Hönigsmann H. Furuncular myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis, the human botfly. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004;50(2):26-30.
25. Mead PS. Lyme Disease 2015 [updated 2015; cited 2015]. Available from:
26. Karami A, Sarshar M, Ranjbar R, Zanjani RS. The Phylum Spirochaetaceae.  The Prokaryotes: Springer; 2014. p. 915-29.
27. Sorouri R, Ramazani A, Karami A, Ranjbar R, Guy EC. Isolation and characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi strains from Ixodes ricinus ticks in the southern England. BioImpacts: BI. 2015;5(2):71.
28. Parasites - Scabies 2010 [cited 2015]. Available from:
29. Sharma R, Singal A. Topical permethrin and oral ivermectin in the management of scabies: a prospective, randomized, double blind, controlled study. Indian J Dermatol. 2011;77(5):581.
30. Organization WH, Research SPf, Diseases TiT, Diseases WHODoCoNT, Epidemic WHO, Alert P. Dengue: guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control: World Health Organization; 2009.
31. Thiboutot MM, Kannan S, Kawalekar OU, Shedlock DJ, Khan AS, Sarangan G, et al. Chikungunya: a potentially emerging epidemic. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4(4):e623.
32. Guha-Sapir D, Schimmer B. Dengue fever: new paradigms for a changing epidemiology. Emerg Themes Epidemiol. 2005;2(1):1.
33. Campion EW, Weaver SC, Lecuit M. Chikungunya virus and the global spread of a mosquito-borne disease. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(13):1231-9.
34. Ericsson CD, Jensenius M, Fournier P-E, Raoult D. Rickettsioses and the international traveler. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39(10):1493-9.
35. Fournier P-E, Roux V, Caumes E, Donzel M, Raoult D. Outbreak of Rickettsia africae infections in participants of an adventure race in South Africa. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;27(2):316-23.
36. Jensenius M, Fournier P-E, Vene S, Hoel T, Hasle G, Henriksen AZ, et al. African tick bite fever in travelers to rural sub-Equatorial Africa. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36(11):1411-7.
37. Dobler G, Wölfel R. Typhus and other rickettsioses. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2009;106(20):28.
38. Typhus S. Diagnosis and treatment of scrub typhus–the Indian scenario. J Assoc Physicians India. 2010;58:11.