Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
The purpose of the present survey was to review the important Non-pharmacologic treatments for fear of flying up to the present. This study is in the same way as some studies. Accordingly, some Non-pharmacologic treatments for fear of flying were assessed through this systematic review article. The general conclusion from the information provided by the former studies, shows that a growing number of treatment facilities offer treatment programs for fear of flying, including combined treatment, Hypnotherapy, EMDR, Relaxation, information Providing, Cognitive-behavioral treatment, cognitive therapy, exposure therapy, Computer-based exposure therapies, Implosion therapy, Flooding, Systematic desensitization and Psychodynamic therapy. Nevertheless, little is known about which specific method or element of treatment programs works best; In addition, Psychological therapy should be employed under unique circumstances and according to the needs of individuals rather than applying identical treatment packages to any case.
Van Gerwen LJ, Spinhoven P, Diekstra RFW, Van Dyck R. Multicomponent Standardized Treatment Programs for Fear of Flying: Description and Effectiveness. Cognand Behav Pract. 2002;9:138-149.
Van Gerwen LJ. Fear of flying, Assessment and treatment issues. Dissertation Leiden University . Asten: Skyline Asten b.v., the Netherland; 2000.
Joseph C, Kulkarni JS. Fear of flying: A review. Ind J Aerospace Med. 2003;47(2):21-31.
Abene MV, Hamilton JD. Resolution of fear of flying with fluoxetine treatment. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 1998;12(6):599-603.
Oaks M, Bor R. The psychology of fear of flying (part I): A critical evaluation of current perspectives on the nature, prevalence and etiology of fear of flying. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2010;8:327-38.
Oakes M, Bor R. The psychology of fear of flying (part II): A critical evaluation of current perspectives on approaches to treatment. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2010;8:339-63.
Bor R, Parker J, Padadopoulos L. Psychological treatment of fear of flying: a review. Journal of the British Health Association. 2000;1:21-26.
Van Gerwen LJ, Delorm C, Van Dyck R, Spinhoven P. Personality pathology and cognitive-behavioral treatment of fear of flying. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 2003;34:171–89.
Bor R. Psychological factors in airline passenger and crew behavior: A clinical overview. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2007;5:207–16.
Triscari MT, Faraci P, D’Angelo V, Urso V, Catalisano D. Two treatments for fear of flying compared: cognitive behavioral therapy combined with systematic desensitization or eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors. 2011;1(1):9-14.
Bor R, Van Gerwen LJ. (eds). Psychological on the treatment of fear of flying. Aldershat: Ashgate; 2003.
Strilcic MA. A Comparison of Virtual Reality vs. Imaginable exposure for Aviophobia on measures of anxiety and presence. MA Dissertation, Hofstra University, 2010.
Howard WA, Murphy SM, Clarke JC. The nature and treatment of fear of flying: A controlled investigation. Behavior Therapy. 1983; 14:557-67.
Hoffman DL. Comparative effects of virtual reality exposure and Imaginable exposure therapy on reduction of Fear of flying symptoms. PhD dissertation, Hofstra University, 2009.
Dadds MR, Bovbjerg DH, Redd WH, Cutmore TR. Imagery in human classical conditioning. Psychological Bulletin. 1997;122:89-103.
Bryant RA, Moulds ML, Guthrie RM, Dang ST, Mastrodomenico, Nixon RDV, et al. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Exposure Therapy and cognitive restructuring for posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2008;76:695-703.
Stampfl TG. Levis DJ. Essentials of implosive therapy: A learning-theory based psychodynamic behavioral therapy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 1967;72:495-503.
Eaglesberg A. Implosion therapy. Behavioral Treatment Quaterly. 1987;1:1-24.
Morell EN. Self-report and Physiological Measurement of Aviophobia: A Comparison of General and Specific Virtual Reality Exposure. PhD dissertation, Hofstra University, 2010.
Watson JB. Psychology as the behaviorist views it. Psychological Review. 1913;20:158-177.
Skinner BF. The problem of consciousness: A debate. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. 1967;27:317-37.
Salter A. Conditioned reflex therapy, the direct approach to the reconstruction of personality. Oxford, England: Creative Age Press; 1949.
Wolpe J. Psychotherapy by reciprocal inhibition. Stanford: Stanford University Press; 1958.
Emmelkamp PMG. Behavior therapy with adults. In Lambert, M. (Ed.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change 5th ed. New York: Wiley; 2003. Pp 393-446.
Botella C, Quero S, Banos RM, Garcia-Palacios A, Breton-Lopez J, Alcaniz M, et al. Telepsychology and self-help: The treatmentof phobias using the Internet. Cyber Psychology and Behavior. 2008;11:659-664.
Tortella-Feliu M, Botella C, Llabrés J, Bretón-López JM, Amo AR, Baños RM, et al. Virtual reality versus computer-aided exposure treatments for fear of flying. Behavior Modification. 2011;35(1): 3–30.
Krijn M, Emmelkamp PMG, Olafsson RP, Biemond R. Virtual reality exposure therapy of anxiety disorders: A review. Clinical Psychology Review. 2004;24:259–81.
Bornas X, Fullana MA, Tortella-Feliu M, Llabres J, Garcia de la Banda G. Computer-assisted therapy in the treatment of flight phobia: A case report. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice. 2001;8:234-40.
Bornas X, Tortella-Feliu M, Fullana MA, Llabres J. Computer assisted treatment of flight phobia: a controlled study. Psychotherapy Research. 2001;11:259-73.
Bornas X, Tortella-Feliu M, Llabres J. Do all treatments work for flight phobia? Computer-assisted exposure versus a brief multi component no exposure treatment. Psychotherapy Research 2006;16:41-50.
Slater M, Pertaub D, Steed A. Public speaking in virtual reality: Facing an audience of avatars. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. 1999;19:6-9.
Hodges L, Rothbaum BO, Kooper R, Opdyke D, Meyer T, de Graaf JJ, Williford JS. Presence as the defining factor in a VR application. Technical Report GIT-GVU-94-5, Georgia Institute of Technology, 1994.
North MM, North SM, Coble JR. Virtual reality therapy: An effective treatment for phobias. In Riva, G., Wiederhold, B. K., Molinari, E. (Eds.), Virtual environments in clinical psychology and neuroscience ( pp. 114–115). Amsterdam, IOS Press.1998
Regenbrecht HT, Schubert TW, Friedman F. Measuring the sense of presence and its relation to fear of heights in virtual environments. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction. 1998;10:233-49.
Krijn M, Emmelkamp PMG, Olafsson RP, Biemond R. Virtual reality exposure therapy of anxiety disorder: A review. Clinical Psychology Review. 2004;24:259-81.
Rothbaum BO, Hodges L, Smith S, Lee JH, Price L. A controlled study of virtual reality exposure therapy for the fear of flying. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2000;68:1020-1026.
Choy Y, Fyer AG, Lipsitz JD. Treatment of specific phobia in adults. Clinical Psychology Review. 2007;27:266-86.
Thorpe SJ, Salkovskis PM. Phobic beliefs: Do cognitive factors play a role in specific phobias? Behavior Research and Therapy 1995;33(7):805−16.
Capafons JI, Sosa CD, Vina CM. A reattribution training program as a therapeutic strategy for fear of flying. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 1999;30(4):259-72.
Muhlberger A, Wiedemann GC, Pauli P. Efficacy of a one-session virtual reality exposure treatment for fear of flying. Psychotherapy Research. 2003;13:323-36.
Roberts R. Passenger fear of flying: behavioral treatment with extensive in-vivo exposure and group support. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine. 1989;60:342-48.
Doctor RM, McVarish C, Boone RP. Long-term behavioral treatment effects for the fear of flying. Phobia Practice and Research Journal. 1990;3(1):33-42.
Tortella M, Bornas X. To fear to fly: evaluation of structured multi-component treatment program. Unpublished paper presented at the European Association of Behavioral and cognitive therapy Congress; London, UK;1993.
Prins PJM, Ollendick TH. Cognitive change and enhanced coping: missing meditational links in cognitive behavior therapy with anxiety-disordered children. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review. 2003;6(2):87–105.
Brewin CR. Theoretical foundations of cognitive-behavior therapy for anxiety and depression. Review Psychology. 1996;47:33–57.
Beck JS. Cognitive therapy: basics and beyond. New York: Guilford; 1995.
Hollon SD. Does cognitive therapy have an enduring effect?. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 2003;27(1):71–75.
Westbrook D, Hill L. The long-term outcome of cognitive behavior therapy for adults in routine clinical practice. Behavior Research and Therapy. 1998;36:635-43.
Barber JP, DeRubeis RJ. On second thought: Where the action is in cognitive therapy for depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 1989;13:441-57.
Intosh IM. Brief selective hypnotherapy in the treatment of flying phobia. Vertex Buenos Aires Argentina. 2007;18(74):268-71.
Capafons JI, Sosa CD, Vina CM. A reattribution training program as a therapeutic strategy for fear of flying. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 1999;30:259-72.
Jongh AD, Broeke ET, Renssen MR. Treatment of specific phobias with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (emdr): protocol, empirical status, and conceptual issues. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 1999;13(1-2):69–85.
Newman MG, Erickson T, Przeworski A, Dzus E. Self-help and minimal-contact therapies for anxiety disorders: Is human contact necessary for therapeutic efficacy?. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2003;59:251-74.
Hellstrom K, Öst L. One-session therapist-directed exposure versus two forms of manual-directed self-exposure in the treatment of spider phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy 1995;33:959-65.
Newgent RA, Paladino DA, Reynolds CA. Single session treatment of no traumatic fear of flying with Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing: Pre and post-September 11. Clinical Case Studies. 2006;5(1):25-36.
Shaw HL. A simple and effective treatment for flight phobia. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 1977;130:229-32.
Crawford H, Barabasz A. Phobias and Intense fears: Facilitating their treatment with hypnosis. In J. Rhue, S. Lynn, & I. Kirsch (Eds.), Handbook of clinical hypnosis. Washington, D.C.: American Pyschological Association; 1993.