Causes and Results of Eye Removal Surgery in Yazd, Iran


Geriateric Ophthalmology Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran


Introduction: Removing eyes has different indications. We surveyed the causes and results of eye removal surgery in Yazd, Iran.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the profile of 102 patients who had underwent eye removal surgery for any reason in the Shahid Sadoughi hospital during the last 10 years. The demographic characteristics, causes of enucleation, the interval between an accident and an eye surgery, and postoperative complications were analyzed.

Results:  In 102 patients (males, 68.6% and females, 31.4%) most cases were laborers (21.6%).The two most common causes of eye enucleation were  trauma (60.9%) and painful blind eye (15.7%). Trauma was the most frequent cause in the age group of  ≤20 years old (78.9%) (P-value< 0.001). In 30.4% of the cases, our management was Sympathetic ophthalmia prevention.

Conclusion: The first cause of eye removal surgery in our study was trauma, especially in the young men. To reduce the rate of this surgery, protective proceeding, early diagnosis, and treatment of many diseases will be useful.


  1. Migliori EM. Enucleation versus evisceration. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2002;13(5):298-302.
  2.  Jung SK, Cho WK, Paik JS, Yang SW. Long-term surgical outcomes of porous polyethylene orbital implants: a review of 314 cases. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012;96(4):494–8.
  3. Bagheri A, Mirbabaei-Ghafghazi F, Abrishami M, Saloor H. Causes of enucleation and results of different implants used in Labbafinejad Hospital during 1988-89. Bina J Ophthalmol. 2001;6:294-302.
  4. Christmas NJ, Gordon CD, Murray TG, Tse D, Johnson T, Garonzik S, O'Brien JM. Intraorbital implants after enucleation and their complications: a 10-year review. Arch Ophthalmol. 1998;116(9):1199-203.
  5. Khataminia GR, Ghaderpanah M, Chenary M, Saidi Z. The incidence and causes of enucleation and evisceration in Khuzestan province. Sci Med J. 2010;9(3):205-21.
  6. Etezad-Razavi M, Daneshvar-Kakhki R, Zarei-Ghanavati S, Nobakht-Rad M. Long-term complications of enucleated or severely traumatized eyes in War Veterans. Bina J Ophthalmol. 2007;12(3):373-9.
  7. Saeed MU, Chang BYP, Khandwala M, Shivane AG, Chakrabarty A. Twenty year review of histopathological findings in enucleated/eviscerated eyes. J Clin Pathol. 2006;59(2):153–55.
  8. Boguseviciene R. An eleven-year experience of eye enucleation caused by severe ocular injuries. Medicina (Kaunas). 2005;41(5):375-81.
  9. Sengupta S, Krishnakumar S, Biswas J, Gopal L, Khetan V. Fifteen-year trends in indications for enucleation from a tertiary care center in South India. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2012;60(3):179–82.
  10. Gunalp I, Gunduz K, Ozkan M. Causes of enucleation: a clinicopathological study. Eur J Ophthalmol. 1997;7(3):223-8.
  11. Vemuganti KG, Jalali S, HonavarGS, Shekar CG. Enucleation in a tertiary eye care centre in India: prevalence, current indications and clinicopathological correlation. Eye. 2001;15:760-5.
  12. Tariq BF, Mahfooz H, Mir Z. Clinico-pathologic study of 70 Enucleations. J Pak Med Assoc. 2009;59(9):612-4.
  13. Nakra T, Ben Simon JG, Douglas SR, Schwarcz MR, McCann DJ, Goldberg AR. Comparing outcomes of enucleation and evisceration. Ophthalmol. 2006;113(12):2270–5.
  14. Merbs SL. Management of a blind painful eye. Ophthalmol Clin North Am. 2006;19(2):287-92.
  15.  Shah-Desai SD, Tyers AG, Manners RM. Painful blind eye: efficacy of enucleation and evisceration in resolving ocular pain. Br J Ophthalmol. 2000;84:437–8.
  16. Custer PL, Reistad CE. Enucleation of blind, painful eyes. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2000;16(5):326-9.
  17. Viswanathan P, Sagoo MS, Olver JM. UK national survey of enucleation, evisceration and orbital implant trends. Brit J Ophthalmol. 2007;91(5):616-9.
  18. Yuan Z, Huang D, Zheng Y. Clinical analysis of evisceration with hydroxyapatite implant.Yan Ke Xue Bao. 2000;16(4):267-9.
  19.  Park YG, Paik JS, Yang SW. The results of evisceration with primary porous implant placement in patients with endophthalmitis. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2010;24(5):279-83.
  20.  Su GW, Yen MT. Current trends in managing the anophthalmic socket after primary enucleation and evisceration. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;20(4):274-80.